The Prevalence and Clinical Predictors of Sleepiness in Southeast Asian Patients
Epilepsy and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) are both associated with abnormal brain activity and frequently coexist. Epilepsy patients were found to be drowsier when compared with general population using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The aim of this study is to determine the association of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in epilepsy patients, as well as the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the predictors of sleepiness among epileptics in South East Asian patients. Five of sixty participants (8.3%) were diagnosed with OSAS and four of them were males. OSAS was mild in one patient, moderate in two patients and severe in the other two. Age, neck circumference, ESS score and BMI were significantly associated with OSAS (p value <0.05). Epilepsy-related risks (type of seizures, duration and type of AED) have no significant association with OSAS. Forty- nine percent of the abnormal physical findings found in OSAS group were related to deviated nasal septum and inferior turbinate hypertrophy. The prevalence of OSAS among epilepsy patients is 8.3%.
The ocean wave is a type of renewable energy with abundant resources and can contain considerable amount of power which can be convert into useful electrical energy. This thesis aims to propose and develop a concept of ocean wave energy harvesting system and to investigate the characteristic of the system. An ocean wave energy harvesting system was developed based on a linear magnet generator. A test rig with a wave generator was built to simulate the wave and the influences of the wave height on the system power output were identified. Experimental test on the system have shown that with increase of wave height the power output also increase with the highest power output at 0.74655 mW at 4.5 cm. The important characteristic of an ocean wave energy generator is the storage capacity, number of wire turns in coil and the strength of the magnet. It can be comprehend that the developed model is capable of converting the kinetic energy of the wave into electrical energy. A more improved ocean wave energy harvesting system is highly recommended for small scale electrical applications.