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An Ecological Approach to Perceptual Learning and Development

The essential nature of learning is primarily thought of as a verbal process or function, but this notion conveys that pre-linguistic infants do not learn. Far from being "blank slates" that passively absorb environmental stimuli, infants are active learners who perceptually engage their environments and extract information from them before language is available. The ecological approach to perceiving--defined as "a theory about perceiving by active creatures who look and listen and move around"--was spearheaded by Eleanor and James Gibson in the 1950s and culminated in James Gibson's last book in 1979. Until now, no comprehensive theoretical statement of ecological development has been published since Eleanor Gibson's Principles of Perceptual Learning and Development (1969). In An Ecological Approach to Perceptual Learning and Development, distinguished experimental psychologists Eleanor J. Gibson and Anne D. Pick provide a unique theoretical framework for the ecological approach to understanding perceptual learning and development. Perception, in accordance with James Gibson's views, entails a reciprocal relationship between a person and his or her environment: The environment provides resources and opportunities for the person, and the person gets information from and acts on the environment. The concept of affordance is central to this idea; the person acts on what the environment affords, as it is appropriate. This extraordinary volume covers the development of perception in detail from birth through toddlerhood, beginning with the development of communication, going on to perceiving and acting on objects, and then to locomotion. It is more than a presentation of facts about perception as it develops. It outlines the ecological approach and shows how it underlies "higher" cognitive processes, such as concept formation, as well as discovery of the basic affordances of the environment. This impressive work should serve as the capstone for Eleanor J. Gibson's distinguished career as a developmental and experimental psychologist.

This impressive work should serve as the capstone for Eleanor J. Gibson's distinguished career as a developmental and experimental psychologist.

An anthology of Qurʼanic commentaries

On the nature of the divine

The vast and varied corpus of Islamic scriptural commentary is attracting much interest from contemporary western scholarship. Of seminal value within the Muslim tradition, Qur'an interpretation has been and continues to be the expression of diverse theological, legal, and mystical understandings of the letter and meanings of God's word. In this first volume, the interpretations of a selection of Sunni, Shi'i, Ibadi, Mu'tazili, and Sufi scholars on six key Qur'anic verses are presented as a chronological and doctrinal cross-section stretching from the second century of Islam to the present day. This selection represents thirteen centuries of exegetical activity from the principal theological and confessional groups of Islam, reflecting the plurality and diversity of Qur'anic interpretation in the Muslim world. The work has been conceived with the general reader in mind, but it has also been designed to meet the specialist needs of those engaged in Islamic studies, its sub-fields, and related academic fields. The way in which the primary material is introduced, analyzed, and supported with extensive annotation will particularly appeal to teachers and students within the field.

This volume, the first in a series, examines theological concerns with God's nature.

The Future of International Economic Law

This book comprises fifteen specially commissioned contributions from the Editorial Board of the Journal of International Economic Law in celebration of the Journal's tenth anniversary. They were originally published as the third issue of volume 10 of the journal in September 2007.

This book comprises fifteen specially commissioned contributions from the Editorial Board of the Journal of International Economic Law in celebration of the Journal's tenth anniversary.

Legal Traditions of the World

Sustainable Diversity in Law

'a superb book' J South Pacific L --

L. Human Rights Quarterly Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies International
and Comparative Law Quarterly Indologica Taurinensia International Business
Lawyer International Journal of Law in Context International Journal of Middle
East Studies International Journal of Constitutional Law International Lawyer
International Literary News International Philosophical Quarterly International
Political Science Review International Review ofLaw and Economics
International Social ...

Makers of Contemporary Islam

Drawing on their decades of research across the breadth of the Muslim world, Esposito and Voll introduce the pivotal role played by activist intellectuals, and then present the lives and work of nine individuals chosen to provide a balanced picture of the enormous variety--both geopolitical and ideological--in the contemporary Muslim world. [This book] is an ideal companion piece to Esposito and Voll's Islam and Democracy and Esposito's Voices of Resurgent Islam.

Through his writings, modernist reform of al-Azhar's curriculum, and (fatwas) as
mufti of Egypt, he fostered Islamic modernist reforms that impacted education, law
, and social issues such as the status of women. For Jameelah, for whom
traditional Islam was totally self-sufficient and adequate, Abduh became a tool of
European imperialism who opened the floodgates of assimilation of Western
thought and culture: "The consequences of Shaikh Muhammad Abduh's
willingness to ...

Wahhabi Islam : From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad

From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad

Before 9/11, few Westerners had heard of Wahhabism. Today, it is a household word. Frequently mentioned in association with Osama bin Laden, Wahhabism is portrayed by the media and public officials as an intolerant, puritanical, militant interpretation of Islam that calls for the wholesale destruction of the West in a jihad of global proportions. In the first study ever undertaken of the writings of Wahhabism's founder, Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1702-1791), Natana DeLong-Bas shatters these stereotypes and misconceptions. Her reading of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab's works produces a revisionist thesis: Ibn Abd al-Wahhab was not the godfather of contemporary terrorist movements. Rather, he was a voice of reform, reflecting mainstream 18th-century Islamic thought. His vision of Islamic society was based upon a monotheism in which Muslims, Christians and Jews were to enjoy peaceful co-existence and cooperative commercial and treaty relations. Eschewing medieval interpretations of the Quran and hadith (sayings and deeds of the prophet Muhammad), Ibn Abd al-Wahhab called for direct, historically contextualized interpretation of scripture by both women and men. His understanding of theology and Islamic law was rooted in Quranic values, rather than literal interpretations. A strong proponent of women's rights, he called for a balance of rights between women and men both within marriage and in access to education and public space. In the most comprehensive study of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab's interpretation of jihad ever written, DeLong-Bas details a vision in which jihad is strictly limited to the self-defense of the Muslim community against military aggression. Contemporary extremists like Osama bin Laden do not have their origins in Wahhabism, she shows. The hallmark jihadi focus on a cult of martyrdom, the strict division of the world into two necessarily opposing spheres, the wholescale destruction of both civilian life and property, and the call for global jihad are entirely absent from Ibn Abd al-Wahhab's writings. Instead, the militant stance of contemporary jihadism lies in adherence to the writings of the medieval scholar, Ibn Taymiyya, and the 20th century Egyptian radical, Sayyid Qutb. This pathbreaking book fills an enormous gap in the literature about Wahhabism by returning to the original writings of its founder. Bound to be controversial, it will be impossible to ignore.

The second major point was recognition of Muhammad's explicit permission to
seek the opinion of a mufti in cases that are not clear. A mufti is a scholar who
serves as both a legal and religious consultant and adviser by issuing fatawa (
sing. fatwa), or legal opinions, to either judges (qadis) or to private individuals on
request. The opinion of the mufti is not considered to be binding in court but offers
a recommendation as to how a particular situation is to be handled. The mufti's
authority ...

Qualitative Methods in Sociolinguistics

Qualitative Reseach Methods in Sociolinguistics provides a brief, accessible introduction to general theoretical and practical questions about research and to the main ways data for interpretive sociolinguistic work can be selected, collected, and analyzed. Topics discussed include standards of evidence, research ethics, ethnography, discourse analysis, and strategies for writing articles and essays. The book, the first on this topic, is intended as a supplementary text for courses in sociolinguistics, language and culture, or field methods. Questions for discussion and suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter provide a starting point for student research projects. The book will be useful to anyone contemplating sociolingustic research on any level.

Questions for discussion and suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter provide a starting point for student research projects. The book will be useful to anyone contemplating sociolingustic research on any level.

The Effectiveness of Rehabilitation for Cognitive Deficits

In this book, some of the leading clinicians and cognitive neuroscientists consider the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation. They situate the issues within an overall context that considers the different types and levels of diagnosis and assessment, the adequacy of underlying cognitive theory for rehabilitation, and more importantly, the clinical effectiveness of current treatments to improve functional recovery. By employing an evidence-based approach that critically evaluates the published literature, the book provides for a better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the cognitive approach and hopefully a more realistic expectation of its outcome for patients with neurological deficits. The book will serve as a valuable source for a wide spectrum of professionals who deal with the neuropsychological and neurological effects of brain damage.

Research has demonstrated what clinicians have long understood, that it is these
disturbances of social conduct and adaptive behaviour following brain injury (
especially frontal brain injury) that constitute the most significant obstacles to
social reintegration (e.g. Mazaux etal. 1997). This chapter will review the
effectiveness of interventions for executive dysfunction in terms of the impact of
rehabilitation procedures on everyday activities. The level of difficulty that a
person has in carrying ...

Ethical Issues in International Biomedical Research

A Casebook

Ethical Issues in International Biomedical Research is the definitive book on the ethics of research involving human subjects in developing countries. Using 21 actual case studies, it covers the most controversial topics, including the ethics of placebo research in Africa, what benefits should be provided to the community after completion of a research trial, how to address conflicts between IRBs in developed and developing countries, and undue inducement of poor people in developing countries. Each case is accompanied by two expert commentaries, written by many of the worlds leading experts in bioethics as well as new voices with research experience in developing countries. No other volume has this scope. Students in bioethics, public and international health, and ethics will find this book particularly useful.

Concerning the context of practice, on the one hand, the case clearly illustrates a
system in which the province's Member of the Executive Committee for the
Department of Health, a political appointee, appeared to polarize and fragment,
and ultimately weaken the institutional ethics system, leaving no ethical
infrastructure to accommodate the development and activity of the REC.
Moreover, this was inadvertently supported by the reluctance of a National
Research Ethics Committee to ...

Lessons from Problem-based Learning

This resource gives the reader information on the development and implementation of problem-based learning (PBL). It gives rise to further debate and refinement of PBL in specific applications elsewhere and in general educational discussion and thought.

This resource gives the reader information on the development and implementation of problem-based learning (PBL).