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Conceptual Foundations of the Balanced Scorecard

David Norton and I introduced the Balanced Scorecard in a 1992 Harvard Business Review article (Kaplan & Norton, 1992). The article was based on a multi-company research project to study performance measurement in companies whose intangible assets played a central role in value creation (Nolan Norton Institute, 1991). Norton and I believed that if companies were to improve the management of their intangible assets, they had to integrate the measurement of intangible assets into their management systems. After publication of the 1992 HBR article, several companies quickly adopted the Balanced Scorecard giving us deeper and broader insights into its power and potential. During the next 15 years, as it was adopted by thousands of private, public, and nonprofit enterprises around the world, we extended and broadened the concept into a management tool for describing, communicating and implementing strategy. This paper describes the roots and motivation for the original Balanced Scorecard article as well as the subsequent innovations that connected it to a larger management literature.

David Norton and I introduced the Balanced Scorecard in a 1992 Harvard Business Review article (Kaplan & Norton, 1992).

Zero Base Budgeting Using the Balanced Scorecard

Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject Business economics - Controlling, grade: 2,3, European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), 26 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The Planning Process itself is often defined differently across companies. One company might think of it as encompassing everything from strategy development to operational planning and quarterly forecasting, to management reporting and performance scorecards. For another company, it might be nothing more than developing departmental budgets once a year. The real purpose of planning (which companies can easily lose sight of) is to improve decision making. But not only decision making is of interest, there are other questions that need to be answered, for example how to handle overhead costs, create more efficiency and effectiveness in the company, through an optimized communication process. In this term paper, two completely different procedures, namely Zero base budgeting and the Balanced Scorecard are analyzed. The first two chapters deal with the attributes of BSC and ZBB. A typical course of actions for both procedures is illustrated and analyzed. Subsequently advantages and disadvantages of both operations are elaborated and a conclusion is drawn. Zero base budgeting is a bottom-up process, which means it starts at bottom and ends at the top(-management). The Balance Scorecard is top-down procedure, which is exact the opposite. At first view, therefore a combination of BSC and ZBB appears to be logical and perfect matching. The schedule of this construct, where ZBB is combined with the BSC, is performed in chapter four. Both ZBB and BSC feature lacks, because every single procedure of the two focuses on a specific assignment and neglects other important aspects. The question is, can the lacks of ZBB and BSC compensate each other, so that finally a procedure is generated, which unites the positive attributes of both processes. In order to analyze and judge the construct of “ZBB using the BSC”, different criteria are defined in chapter five, and the construct is being judge by these criteria, which represent attributes, a successful strategic, tactical and operational planning system should fulfil. In the end, a final conclusion is drawn, if it is possible to unite ZBB and BSC and to generate a procedure, whose benefits generally considered lies above its costs.

Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject Business economics - Controlling, grade: 2,3, European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), 26 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The Planning Process itself is often ...